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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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felt in the common idea, are extremely numerous, and add greatly to the power of the
language as the means of expression. Thus kynt causal prefix, maw, stone ; kyn-maw,
mark with a stone as memorial, remember : khmiJi, look at, watch, lynfa, road ; khmlh*
lynti, expect, await: sngow, feel, bha, good; sngowbhd, be pleased.

ARTIClE,-~The pronoun of the third person is commonly described as an article.
Its forms are, singular, masc. u, fern Jca, diminutive or familiar, •; plural (com gon.) ki.
One of these must precede every noun. It has not, however, the force of our article,
cipher definite or indefinite, hut only indicates the gender and number of the associated
noun. The ' article J is omitted in idiomatic sentences when no ambiguity is caused by
the omission.

Gender is indicated in the singular by the ' article \ in the plural,
where necessary, by words denoting sex. The great majority of inanimate nouns are
feminine; all abstracts (formed either by the prefix jing, or the adjective with or without
ba i are feminine. The sun, day, is feminine, ka sngi ; the moon, month, is masculine,
n bynai. Sometimes the word varies in meaning according to the gender : u ngap, bee ; ka
vgap, honey. Diminutives are formed by the prefix i : n bnw, a man; i briw, a dwarf :
ka Ing^ a house ; i Ing, a hut,

Uuniber Is indicated only by the article,

Case is indicated by prefixes.   Thus :—




Dative    .
Ablative .
Genitive ,
Locative .

u lnw, a man  ....

ta n Iriw, a man

da 11 brim, by a man .       .       .

Aaj *Aa, or 4a u Iriv), to or for a man

no « bnw, from a man

jong u Iriw, of a man

ha tt Intf, in a man .

Tst Inw, men.

ia Jfi Imv, men.

da U Inw, by men.

/to, sjia, or ia hi Iriw, io or for mon.

na ki Irtw, from men,

jong ki bnw, of men.

Jia lei Iritc, in men.

JVB.—Tho prefix of the Accusative (ta) nni of the Genitive (jong) are often omitted, the position of the word indicatm • the
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ADJECTIVES,—All are formed by prefixing fa-(the particle of relativity or
purpose) to the root. Thus, bha, goodness; ba-bhd, good : mwt badness; ba-smw, bad.
Often hi- is dropped and the root joined immediately to the noun, but in this case there
is generally some difference of meaning, and the word has become properly a permanent
compound noun. Thus, u Inw babha, a good man: wVft0-&M,arick man. The 'article*
may bo repeated before the adjective or omitted at pleasure, u Mw it bastdd or «
bnw lasttid, a wise man.
The adjective always follows the noun.
Comparison is effected by inserting Horn between found the root for the compara-
tive, and by adding torn to the positive, either with or without kham, for the superlative :—
hard; ba-kbttm-eh harder j ba-eh-tam> ba-Jcham-eMm, hardest